Table of Contents


From the Docker Documentation:

Docker is a platform for developers and sysadmins to develop, deploy, and run applications with containers. > The use of Linux containers to deploy applications is called containerization. Containers are not new, but their use for easily deploying applications is.

Containerization is increasingly popular because containers are:

  • Flexible: Even the most complex applications can be containerized.
  • Lightweight: Containers leverage and share the host kernel.
  • Interchangeable: You can deploy updates and upgrades on-the-fly.
  • Portable: You can build locally, deploy to the cloud, and run anywhere.
  • Scalable: You can increase and automatically distribute container replicas.
  • Stackable: You can stack services vertically and on-the-fly.


An image is a collection of files (a package) that is executable. It has all the files necessary to run an application, from dependencies to configuration files.

It is analogous to a class from object-oriented programming.


“A container is a runtime instance of an image,” or in other words, it is an instance of a class. One image can be used to “spin up” many containers. A container is what an image becomes (in the computer’s memory) when it is launched. It is a user process with a state and need for access to resources.

Docker being a “machine” of sorts, it has its own processes, which happen to be instances of images–containers.

Just as you would in Linux, you can see a list of your running containers by issuing (sudo) docker ps (more on that soon).

Comparison to Virtual Machines

A container runs natively on Linux and shares the kernel of the host machine with other containers. It runs a discrete process, taking no more memory than any other executable, making it lightweight.

By contrast, a virtual machine (VM) runs a full-blown “guest” operating system with virtual access to host resources through a hypervisor. In general, VMs provide an environment with more resources than most applications need.

Here is a Virtual Machine:


And here is a Container:


Notice how Docker sits atop the Host Operating System 1 and is performing the management role of resources among applications in place of a “hypervisor” from a Virtual Machine.


Here is the Cheatsheet from which I will be pulling much of what is in this post.

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Quick and easy install script provided by Docker:

curl -sSL | sh

From the author of the cheatsheet:

If you’re not willing to run a random shell script, please see the installation instructions for your distribution. If you are a complete Docker newbie, you should follow the series of tutorials now.


Download and install Docker Community Edition. if you have Homebrew-Cask, just type brew cask install docker.

Once you’ve installed Docker Community Edition, click the docker icon in Launchpad. Then start up a container:

docker run hello-world

Note: You may have to restart your shell session (either by closing and re-launching a new one, or logging out of your remote server connection with Ctrl-D and logging back in with ssh). This is what I had to do.

If successful, you should see a “Hello from Docker!” printout in your console.

And that’s it, you have a running Docker container (this one comes with the install).

However, we are not quite done yet. Let’s get to some configuration…


Go deal with it yourself. It’s similar to the Desktop-version available for Mac, but comes with all sorts of caveats you should read through first. It should be fairly straightforward for Windows 10 Users. My suggestion is to simply go with Linux, since our focus is on using Docker for deploying to servers, which are unlikely to be running Windows for the use-cases we have in mind. That said, should be doable, if you insist on it.

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One thing you may notice is that docker commands require the use of sudo, which we would like to avoid. To avoid permission errors (and the use of sudo), add your user to the docker group.

Post-Installation Steps contains optional procedures for configuring Linux hosts to work better with Docker. The following is taken from that source, and much more Troubleshooting Information can be found there.


To create the docker group and add your user:

  1. Create the docker group.
  2. Add your user to the docker group.
  3. Log out and log back in so that your group membership is re-evaluated. Some caveats may apply. 2
sudo groupadd docker
sudo usermod -aG docker $USER

Verify that you can run docker commands without sudo.

docker run hello-world

This command downloads a test image and runs it in a container. When the container runs, it prints an informational message and exits.

If you initially ran Docker CLI commands using sudo before adding your user to the docker group, you may see the following error, which indicates that your ~/.docker/ directory was created with incorrect permissions due to the sudo commands.

WARNING: Error loading config file: /home/user/.docker/config.json 
- stat /home/user/.docker/config.json: permission denied

To fix this problem, either remove the ~/.docker/ directory (it is recreated automatically, but any custom settings are lost), or change its ownership and permissions using the following commands:

sudo chown "$USER":"$USER" /home/"$USER"/.docker -R
sudo chmod g+rwx "$HOME/.docker" -R

Start on boot

Sometimes you want Docker to be the main thing running on a server and thus started up on boot (for the occasional restart). This feature may be desired for servers that host critical processes using Docker. Most current Linux distributions (RHEL, CentOS, Fedora, Ubuntu 16.04 and higher) use systemd to manage which services start when the system boots. 3

sudo systemctl enable docker

To disable this behavior, use disable instead.

sudo systemctl disable docker

Re-route IP

By default, the Docker daemon listens for connections on a UNIX socket to accept requests from local clients.

It is possible to allow Docker to accept requests from remote hosts by configuring it to listen on an IP address and port as well as the UNIX socket.

For more detailed information on this configuration option take a look at “Bind Docker to another host/port or a unix socket” section of the Docker CLI Reference article.

Security Notice: Before configuring Docker to accept connections from remote hosts it is critically important that you understand the security implications of opening docker to the network. If steps are not taken to secure the connection, it is possible for remote non-root users to gain root access on the host. For more information on how to use TLS certificates to secure this connection, check this article on how to protect the Docker daemon socket.

Configuring Docker to accept remote connections can be done with the docker.service systemd unit file for Linux distributions using systemd.

Use the command sudo systemctl edit docker.service to open an override file for docker.service in a text editor.

Add or modify the following lines, substituting your own values.

ExecStart=/usr/bin/dockerd -H fd:// -H tcp://
Save the file.

Reload the systemctl configuration and restart Docker.

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl restart docker.service

Check to see whether the change was honored by reviewing the output of netstat to confirm dockerd is listening on the configured port, which should look similar to:

$ sudo netstat -lntp | grep dockerd
tcp        0      0*               LISTEN      3758/dockerd

To enable IPv6 on the Docker daemon, see Enable IPv6 support.


More troubleshooting information can be found in the Troubleshooting section of the Post-Install documentation page.

Here we attempt to address just a couple of the most common things that we may have to do.

IP Forwarding

If you manually configure your network using systemd-network with systemd version 219 or higher, Docker containers may not be able to access your network.

Beginning with systemd version 220, the forwarding setting for a given network (net.ipv4.conf.<interface>.forwarding) defaults to off. This setting prevents IP forwarding. It also conflicts with Docker’s behavior of enabling the net.ipv4.conf.all.forwarding setting within containers.

To work around this on RHEL, CentOS, or Fedora, edit the <interface>.network file in /usr/lib/systemd/network/ on your Docker host (ex: /usr/lib/systemd/network/ and add the following block within the [Network] section.

# OR

This configuration allows IP forwarding from the container as expected.


You may see

WARNING: Your kernel does not support swap limit capabilities. Limitation discarded.

This warning does not occur on RPM-based systems, which enable these capabilities by default. If you don’t need these capabilities, you can ignore the warning.

You can enable these capabilities on Ubuntu or Debian by following these instructions. Memory and swap accounting incur an overhead of about 1% of the total available memory and a 10% overall performance degradation, even if Docker is not running.

  1. Log into the Ubuntu or Debian host as a user with sudo privileges.

  2. Edit the /etc/default/grub file. Add or edit the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX line to add the following two key-value pairs:

GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="cgroup_enable=memory swapaccount=1"

Save and close the file.

  1. Update GRUB. sudo update-grub

If your GRUB configuration file has incorrect syntax, an error occurs. In this case, repeat steps 3 and 4. The changes take effect when the system is rebooted.

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This is where security tips about Docker go. The Docker security page goes into more detail.

First things first: Docker runs as root.

If you are in the docker group, you effectively have root access.

If you expose the docker UNIX socket to a container, you are giving the container root access to the host.

Docker should not be your only defense. You should secure and harden it.

The security tips following are useful if you’ve already hardened containers in the past, but are not a substitute for understanding. 4

Security Tips

For greatest security, you want to run Docker inside a virtual machine. (Source: Docker Security Team Lead slides / notes.

Then, run with AppArmor / seccomp / SELinux / grsec etc to limit the container permissions. See the Docker 1.10 security features for more details.

Docker image ids are sensitive information and should not be exposed to the outside world. Treat them like passwords.

See the Docker Security Cheat Sheet by Thomas Sjögren: some good stuff about container hardening in there.

Check out the docker bench security script for a security benchmark.

Download the white papers and subscribe to the mailing lists (unfortunately Docker does not have a unique mailing list, only dev / user). To begin with, see this (foot)note from the cheatsheet 5.


Making Docker Safe for Production

Since Docker 1.11, you can easily limit the number of active processes running inside a container to prevent fork bombs.

This requires a Linux kernel >= 4.3 with CGROUP_PIDS=y to be in the kernel configuration.

docker run --pids-limit=64

Also available since docker 1.11 is the ability to prevent processes from gaining new privileges.

This feature have been in the Linux kernel since version 3.5. You can read more about it in this blog post.

docker run --security-opt=no-new-privileges

From the Docker Security Cheat Sheet (it’s in PDF which makes it hard to use, so copying below) by Container Solutions :

Be aware that the following may affect the performance of your applications in unexpected ways if you are not sure what kinds of communications requirements you need.

Proceed with caution. Reference the [presentation above][docker-production].

Turn off interprocess communication with:

docker -d --icc=false --iptables

Set the container to be read-only:

docker run --read-only

Verify images with a hashsum:

docker pull debian@sha256:a25306f3850e1bd44541976aa7b5fd0a29be

Set volumes to be read only:

docker run -v $(pwd)/secrets:/secrets:ro debian

Define and run a user in your Dockerfile so you don’t run as root inside the container:

RUN groupadd -r user && useradd -r -g user user
USER user


Exposing incoming ports through the host container is fiddly but doable.

This is done by mapping the container port to the host port (only using localhost interface) using -p:

docker run -p$HOSTPORT:$CONTAINERPORT --name CONTAINER -t someimage

You can tell Docker that the container listens on the specified network ports at runtime by using EXPOSE:


Note that EXPOSE does not expose the port itself – only -p will do that. To expose the container’s port on your localhost’s port:

iptables -t nat -A DOCKER -p tcp --dport <LOCALHOSTPORT> -j DNAT --to-destination <CONTAINERIP>:<PORT>

If you’re running Docker in Virtualbox, you then need to forward the port there as well, using forwarded_port. Define a range of ports in your Vagrantfile like this so you can dynamically map them:

Vagrant.configure(VAGRANTFILE_API_VERSION) do |config|

  (49000..49900).each do |port| :forwarded_port, :host => port, :guest => port


If you forget what you mapped the port to on the host container, use docker port to show it:



User Namespaces

There’s also work on user namespaces – it is in 1.10 but is not enabled by default.

To enable user namespaces (“remap the userns”) in Ubuntu 15.10, follow the blog example.

The Security Roadmap

The Docker roadmap talks about seccomp support. There is an AppArmor policy generator called bane, and they’re working on security profiles.

Security Videos

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Cheat Sheet

The following is full Cheat Sheet mentioned earlier, and presented here for convenience. Feel free to use the table of contents on the right sidebar (or duplicated below for mobile users) to more easily navigate this page than on the Github Gist 6.

Table of Contents


Images are just templates for docker containers.


  • docker images shows all images.
  • docker import creates an image from a tarball.
  • docker build creates image from Dockerfile.
  • docker commit creates image from a container, pausing it temporarily if it is running.
  • docker rmi removes an image.
  • docker load loads an image from a tar archive as STDIN, including images and tags (as of 0.7).
  • docker save saves an image to a tar archive stream to STDOUT with all parent layers, tags & versions (as of 0.7).


Cleaning up

While you can use the docker rmi command to remove specific images, there’s a tool called docker-gc that will safely clean up images that are no longer used by any containers.

Load/Save image

Load an image from file:

docker load < my_image.tar.gz

Save an existing image:

docker save my_image:my_tag | gzip > my_image.tar.gz


The versioned filesystem in Docker is based on layers. They’re like git commits or changesets for filesystems.

Eventually you’ll want to make changes to an existing image, and will find yourself manipulating the Dockerfile that defines the build and configuration of the image. You can think of this as mimicking the keystrokes a user would have to enter in order to set up each application on a fresh computer.

Pretty much every image we’ll be interested in will have it’s origin in some version of a Linux distribution on top of which a number of commands are run to define the files necessary for the use-case.

Since each “version” of an image is an entire filesystem, building one version of an image based on a previous one can lead to lots of unnecessary files being tracked.

As stated in the Dockerfile section, the command RUN executes any commands in a new layer on top of the current image, and commits the results.

This “on top” part is especially important to understand, and several things can be done to keep subsequent changes to an image relatively “lightweight.”

For example, make sure to clean up the APT repositories.


Your basic isolated Docker process. Containers are to Virtual Machines as threads are to processes. Or you can think of them as chroots on steroids.


Normally if you run a container without options it will start and stop immediately, if you want keep it running you can use the command, docker run -td container_id this will use the option -t that will allocate a pseudo-TTY session and -d that will detach automatically the container (run container in background and print container ID).

If you want a transient container, docker run --rm will remove the container after it stops.

If you want to map a directory on the host to a docker container, docker run -v $HOSTDIR:$DOCKERDIR. Also see Volumes.

If you want to remove also the volumes associated with the container, the deletion of the container must include the -v switch like in docker rm -v.

There’s also a logging driver available for individual containers in docker 1.10. To run docker with a custom log driver (i.e., to syslog), use docker run --log-driver=syslog.

Another useful option is docker run --name yourname docker_image because when you specify the --name inside the run command this will allow you to start and stop a container by calling it with the name the you specified when you created it.

Starting and Stopping

If you want to integrate a container with a host process manager, start the daemon with -r=false then use docker start -a.

If you want to expose container ports through the host, see the exposing ports section.

Restart policies on crashed docker instances are covered here.


  • docker ps shows running containers.
  • docker logs gets logs from container. (You can use a custom log driver, but logs is only available for json-file and journald in 1.10).
  • docker inspect looks at all the info on a container (including IP address).
  • docker events gets events from container.
  • docker port shows public facing port of container.
  • docker top shows running processes in container.
  • docker stats shows containers’ resource usage statistics.
  • docker diff shows changed files in the container’s FS.

docker ps -a shows running and stopped containers.

docker stats --all shows a running list of containers.

Import / Export

  • docker cp copies files or folders between a container and the local filesystem.
  • docker export turns container filesystem into tarball archive stream to STDOUT.

Executing Commands

To enter a running container, attach a new shell process to a running container called foo, use: docker exec -it foo /bin/bash.

Container Import/Export

Import a container as an image from file:

cat my_container.tar.gz | docker import - my_image:my_tag

Export an existing container:

docker export my_container | gzip > my_container.tar.gz

The difference between loading a saved image and importing an exported container as an image

Loading an image using the load command creates a new image including its history.

Importing a container as an image using the import command creates a new image, excluding the history, which results in a smaller image size compared to loading an image.


CPU Constraints

You can limit CPU, either using a percentage of all CPUs, or by using specific cores.

For example, you can tell the cpu-shares setting. The setting is a bit strange – 1024 means 100% of the CPU, so if you want the container to take 50% of all CPU cores, you should specify 512. See for more:

docker run -ti -c 512 agileek/cpuset-test

You can also only use some CPU cores using cpuset-cpus. See for details and some nice videos:

docker run -ti --cpuset-cpus=0,4,6 agileek/cpuset-test

Note that Docker can still see all of the CPUs inside the container – it just isn’t using all of them. See for more details.

Memory Constraints

You can also set memory constraints on Docker:

docker run -it -m 300M ubuntu:14.04 /bin/bash


Linux capabilities can be set by using cap-add and cap-drop. See for details.

This should be used for greater security.

To mount a FUSE based filesystem, you need to combine both –cap-add and –device:

docker run --rm -it --cap-add SYS_ADMIN --device /dev/fuse sshfs

Give access to a single device:

docker run -it --device=/dev/ttyUSB0 debian bash

Give access to all devices:

docker run -it --privileged -v /dev/bus/usb:/dev/bus/usb debian bash

more info about privileged containers here


The configuration file.

Sets up a Docker container when you run docker build on it. Vastly preferable to docker commit.

Here are some common text editors and their syntax highlighting modules you could use to create Dockerfiles:


  • .dockerignore
  • FROM Sets the Base Image for subsequent instructions.
  • MAINTAINER (deprecated - use LABEL instead) Set the Author field of the generated images.
  • RUN execute any commands in a new layer on top of the current image and commit the results.
  • CMD provide defaults for an executing container.
  • EXPOSE informs Docker that the container listens on the specified network ports at runtime. NOTE: does not actually make ports accessible.
  • ENV sets environment variable.
  • ADD copies new files, directories or remote file to container. Invalidates caches. Avoid ADD and use COPY instead.
  • COPY copies new files or directories to container. Note that this only copies as root, so you have to chown manually regardless of your USER / WORKDIR setting. See
  • ENTRYPOINT configures a container that will run as an executable.
  • VOLUME creates a mount point for externally mounted volumes or other containers.
  • USER sets the user name for following RUN / CMD / ENTRYPOINT commands.
  • WORKDIR sets the working directory.
  • ARG defines a build-time variable.
  • ONBUILD adds a trigger instruction when the image is used as the base for another build.
  • STOPSIGNAL sets the system call signal that will be sent to the container to exit.
  • LABEL apply key/value metadata to your images, containers, or daemons.




Docker has a networks feature. Not much is known about it, so this is a good place to expand the cheat sheet. There is a note saying that it’s a good way to configure docker containers to talk to each other without using ports. See working with networks for more details.




You can specify a specific IP address for a container:

# create a new bridge network with your subnet and gateway for your ip block
$ docker network create --subnet --gateway iptastic

# run a nginx container with a specific ip in that block
$ docker run --rm -it --net iptastic --ip nginx

# curl the ip from any other place (assuming this is a public ip block duh)
$ curl


Registries v. Repositories

A repository is a hosted collection of tagged images that together create the file system for a container.

A registry is a host – a server that stores repositories and provides an HTTP API for managing the uploading and downloading of repositories. hosts its own index to a central registry which contains a large number of repositories.

Having said that, the central docker registry does not do a good job of verifying images and should be avoided if you’re worried about security.

Run local registry

You can run a local registry by using the docker distribution project and looking at the local deploy instructions.

Also see the mailing list.

Links are how Docker containers talk to each other through TCP/IP ports. Linking into Redis and Atlassian show worked examples. You can also resolve links by hostname.

This has been deprected to some extent by user-defined networks.

NOTE: If you want containers to ONLY communicate with each other through links, start the docker daemon with -icc=false to disable inter process communication.

If you have a container with the name CONTAINER (specified by docker run --name CONTAINER) and in the Dockerfile, it has an exposed port:


Then if we create another container called LINKED like so:

docker run -d --link CONTAINER:ALIAS --name LINKED user/wordpress

Then the exposed ports and aliases of CONTAINER will show up in LINKED with the following environment variables:


And you can connect to it that way.

To delete links, use docker rm --link.

Generally, linking between docker services is a subset of “service discovery”, a big problem if you’re planning to use Docker at scale in production. Please read The Docker Ecosystem: Service Discovery and Distributed Configuration Stores for more info.


Docker volumes are free-floating filesystems. They don’t have to be connected to a particular container. You should use volumes mounted from data-only containers for portability.



Volumes are useful in situations where you can’t use links (which are TCP/IP only). For instance, if you need to have two docker instances communicate by leaving stuff on the filesystem.

You can mount them in several docker containers at once, using docker run --volumes-from.

Because volumes are isolated filesystems, they are often used to store state from computations between transient containers. That is, you can have a stateless and transient container run from a recipe, blow it away, and then have a second instance of the transient container pick up from where the last one left off.

See advanced volumes for more details. Container42 is also helpful.

You can map MacOS host directories as docker volumes:

docker run -v /Users/wsargent/myapp/src:/src

You can use remote NFS volumes if you’re feeling brave.

You may also consider running data-only containers as described here to provide some data portability.

Be aware that you can mount files as volumes.

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Useful Commands/Tips



It is very important that you always know the current version of Docker you are currently running on at any point in time. This is very helpful because you get to know what features are compatible with what you have running. This is also important because you know what containers to run from the docker store when you are trying to get template containers. That said let see how to know what version of docker we have running currently

  • docker version checks what version of docker you have running
  • Usage: docker version [OPTIONS]

Get the server version

$ docker version --format '{{.Server.Version}}'


Dump raw JSON data

$ docker version --format '{{json .}}'



Get IP Address

docker inspect $(dl) | grep -wm1 IPAddress | cut -d '"' -f 4

or install jq:

docker inspect $(dl) | jq -r '.[0].NetworkSettings.IPAddress'

or using a go template:

docker inspect -f '{{ .NetworkSettings.IPAddress }}' <container_name>

or when building an image from Dockerfile, when you want to pass in a build argument:

DOCKER_HOST_IP=`ifconfig | grep -E "([0-9]{1,3}\.){3}[0-9]{1,3}" | grep -v | awk '{ print $2 }' | cut -f2 -d: | head -n1`
docker build \
  -t sometag \

Get Port Mapping

docker inspect -f '{{range $p, $conf := .NetworkSettings.Ports}} {{$p}} -> {{(index $conf 0).HostPort}} {{end}}' <containername>


Find containers using regular expression:

for i in $(docker ps -a | grep "REGEXP_PATTERN" | cut -f1 -d" "); do echo $i; done

Get environment settings

docker run --rm ubuntu env

Kill running containers

docker kill $(docker ps -q)

Delete all containers (force!! running or stopped containers)

docker rm -f $(docker ps -qa)

Delete old containers

docker ps -a | grep 'weeks ago' | awk '{print $1}' | xargs docker rm

Delete stopped containers

docker rm -v $(docker ps -a -q -f status=exited)

Delete containers after stopping

docker stop $(docker ps -aq) && docker rm -v $(docker ps -aq)

Delete dangling images

docker rmi $(docker images -q -f dangling=true)

Delete all images

docker rmi $(docker images -q)

Delete dangling volumes

As of Docker 1.9:

docker volume rm $(docker volume ls -q -f dangling=true)

In 1.9.0, the filter dangling=false does not work - it is ignored and will list all volumes.

Show image dependencies

docker images -viz | dot -Tpng -o docker.png


docker system df presents a summary of the space currently used by different docker objects.

Heredoc Docker Container

docker build -t htop - << EOF
FROM alpine
RUN apk --no-cache add htop


The new Data Management Commands have landed as of Docker 1.13:

  • docker system prune
  • docker volume prune
  • docker network prune
  • docker container prune
  • docker image prune

Last Ids

alias dl='docker ps -l -q'
docker run ubuntu echo hello world
docker commit $(dl) helloworld


with command (needs Dockerfile)

docker commit -run='{"Cmd":["postgres", "-too -many -opts"]}' $(dl) postgres


Monitor system resource utilization for running containers

To check the CPU, memory, and network I/O usage of a single container, you can use:

docker stats <container>

For all containers listed by id:

docker stats $(docker ps -q)

For all containers listed by name:

docker stats $(docker ps --format '{{.Names}}')

For all containers listed by image:

docker ps -a -f ancestor=ubuntu

Remove all untagged images

docker rmi $(docker images | grep “^” | awk '{split($0,a," "); print a[3]}')

Remove container by a regular expression

docker ps -a | grep wildfly | awk '{print $1}' | xargs docker rm -f

Remove all exited containers

docker rm -f $(docker ps -a | grep Exit | awk '{ print $1 }')

Volumes can be files

Be aware that you can mount files as volumes. For example you can inject a configuration file like this:

# copy file from container
docker run --rm httpd cat /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf > httpd.conf

# edit file
vim httpd.conf

# start container with modified configuration
docker run --rm -ti -v "$PWD/httpd.conf:/usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf:ro" -p "80:80" httpd


  • Cleaning APT in a RUN layer. Note 7

    RUN {apt commands} \
    && apt-get clean \
    && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/* /tmp/* /var/tmp/*
  • Flatten an image

    ID=$(docker run -d image-name /bin/bash)
    docker export $ID | docker import – flat-image-name
  • For backup

    ID=$(docker run -d image-name /bin/bash)
    (docker export $ID | gzip -c > image.tgz)
    gzip -dc image.tgz | docker import - flat-image-name

Best Practices

This is where general Docker best practices and war stories go:

  1. In this tutorial, we will be using Linux since that is what almost every server runs, but as the principle of Docker is that it makes applications independent of platforms, everything herein should be applicable no matter what machine you are running. ^
  2. If testing on a virtual machine, it may be necessary to restart the virtual machine for changes to take effect. On a desktop Linux environment such as X Windows, log out of your session completely and then log back in. ^
  3. Ubuntu 14.10 and below use upstart. See the post-installation instructions for support. ^
  4. For an understanding of what containers leave exposed, you should read Understanding and Hardening Linux Containers by Aaron Grattafiori. This is a complete and comprehensive guide to the issues involved with containers, with a plethora of links and footnotes leading on to yet more useful content. ^
  5. You should start off by using a kernel with unstable patches for grsecurity / pax compiled in, such as Alpine Linux. If you are using grsecurity in production, you should spring for commercial support for the stable patches, same as you would do for RedHat. It’s $200 a month, which is nothing to your devops budget. ^
  6. The gist was scraped and mildly edited on 12/22/18, so it may behoove you to check the original source for any updates. If you find typos/corrections/updates that should be included below, please get in touch. ^
  7. This should be done in the same layer as other apt commands. Otherwise, the previous layers still persist the original information and your images will still be fat. ^